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英语语法之代词
2013-07-02 09:45:54 来源: 作者: 【 】 浏览:1509次 评论:0
定义 代词(pronoun)是代替名词的词:
代词在句子中的功用
a)和名词一样,可作主语、宾语和表语。b)有些代词和形容词一样,可作定语。如:
a) I am reading The Arabian Nights.我在读《天方夜谭》。(作主语)
This is John Smith speaking.(打电话用语)我是约翰·史密斯。(作主语)
Can I help you?我能帮你的忙吗?(作宾语)
That's all.我的话完了。(作表语)
b)His father is an eye-doctor.他父亲是个眼科医生。(作定语)
All men are equal.所有的人都是平等的。(作定语)
3)格的变化 有些代词有格的变化,如I 我(主格),me我(宾格),Who谁(主格),whom谁(宾格)。某些代词有所有格,如whose谁的,other's别人的,somebody's某人的,one's一个人的。
4)单复数形式 有些代词有单数和复数形式。少数代词的复数形式和名词的复数形式的变化规则相同,如one-ones,other-others。其他如人称代词、物主代词、自身代词和指示代词等,其复数形式与此不同,须个别记忆。
5)有或没有冠词 代词之前一般不用冠词,只有少数例外。如:the other,the others,a few,a little等。
种类
英语有下列几种代词:
1)人称代词(personal pronoun)
a)主格:I,he,she,it,we,you,they.
b)宾格:me,him,her,it,us,you,them.
2)物主代词(possessive pronoun):
a)形容词性物主代词:my,his,her,its;our,your,their.
b)名词性物主代词:mine,his,hers,its,ours,yours,theirs.
3)自身代词(self-pronoun):myself,yourself,himself,herself,itself,ourselves,yourselves,themselves,oneself.
4)相互代词(reciprocal pronoun):each other,one another.
5)指示代词(demonstrative pronoun):this,that,these,those,such,same.
6)疑问代词(interrogative pronoun):who,whom,whose,which,what.
7)关系代词(relative pronoun):who,whom,whose,which,that.
8)不定代词(indefinite pronoun):some,something,somebody,someone,any,anything,anybody,anyone,no,nothing,nobody,no one,every,everything,everybody,everyone,each,much,many,little,a little,few,a few,other,another,all,none,one,both,either,neither.
人称代词概说
表示"我',、"你"、"他"、"我们"、"你们"、"他们"等的词,叫做人称代词。
人称代词的用法
1)人称代词主格的用法
a)作主语
I am a cook.(炊事员) We are cooks,
You are a teacher.(教师) You are teachers.
He is a barber.(理发员) The yare barbers.
She is a nurse.(护士)The yare nurses.
It is a cart.(大车) They are carts.
b)作表语
It's I .是我。Oh,it's you. 噢,是你。
[注一]第一人称单数人称代词I (我)永远要大写。(见上面例句)
[注二]口语习惯上不说it's I (he, she等),而说It's me (him,her等)。
2)人称代词宾格的用法
a)作及物动词的宾语
The dog bit him.那只狗咬了他。
Our P. T. teacher taught us to swim yesterday.我们的体育老师昨天教我们游泳。
This is my new hat. Do you like it ?这是我的新帽子,你喜欢吗?
b)作介词的宾语
My brother often writes tome.我弟弟常给我写信。
They took good care of us.他们无微不至地照料我们。
3)人称代词的其他用法 各人称代词除按照自身的人称、数和格使用外,还有下列一些特殊用法:
a)报刊的编辑和文章的作者,在发表观点时,常用we代替I (同样用our代替my)。如:
We believe that China will make still greater progress in shipbuilding.我们相信中国的造船业将会有更大的发展。
In our opinion this is the best film of the year.我们认为这是今年最好的影片。
b)用she来代替国家、城市、船舶、飞机以及动物等,以表示亲切和爱抚。如:
That's the picture of the Dongfeng; she is a 10,000 - ton class ocean - going freighter.那是万吨远洋货轮东风号的照片。
The dog waved his tail when he saw his master.那狗看见主人就摇尾巴。
c)北有时可用来代替小孩(child)和婴儿(baby)。如:
The child smiled when it saw its mother.小孩见到母亲就笑了。
d) they可用来代替一般的人,特别在"they say"中。如:
They say there's going to be another good harvest this year.人们说今年又是个丰收年。
物主代词概说
表示所有关系的代词叫做物主代词,也可叫做代词所有格。
物主代词的用法
1)形容词性物主代词用作定语
I love my work in the hospital.我喜欢我在医院的工作。
How many students are there in his (her) class?他(她)班上有多少学生?
There are many good teachers in our school.我们学校有许多好老师。
I saw a film lasts saturday. Its title was Guerrillas on the Plains.
我上星期六看了一个电影,名叫《平原游击队》。
2)名词性物主代词用作主语、宾语和表语
a)用作主语:
Our room is on the first floor, and theirs is on the second 我们的房间在一层,他们的在二层。
Ours is a socialist country.我们的国家是社会主义国家。
b)用作宾语:
I didn't borrow her dictionary. I borrowed his.我没有借她的字典,我借的是他的。
c)用作表语:
Whose pencil is this?-It is hers.这是谁的铅笔?
--是她的。
These tools are ours.这些工具是我们的。
[注]"of+名词性物主代词"和2.12的"of+名词所有格"的用法完全一样。如:
a friend of mine我的一个朋友(表示部分观念,意即我有不少朋友,他(她)是其中之一)
this lovely child of yours你的这个可爱的孩子(有感情色彩)
自身代词概说
表示反射(指一个动作回射到该动作执行者本身)或强调(即用来加强名词或代词的语气)的代词叫做自身代词。
自身代词的用法
1)在句中作宾语,表示动作回到动作执行者的本身。如:
Please help yourself to some lea.请自己用茶。(作help的宾语)
The girl is too young to look after herself.这女孩太小,还不能照顾自己。(作look after的宾语)
He was always ready to help others; he never thought of himself他总是帮助别人,从不想到自己。(作thought of的宾语)
2)在句中作名词或代词的同位语,用来加强名词或代词的语气,作"亲自"、"本人"解。它在句中可置于名词、代词之后,也可置于句子末尾。如:
You yourself said so.你自己是这样说的。
The desk itself is not so heavy.书桌本身并不重。
I fixed the window myself.这窗户是我自己装的。
相互代词
表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。
相互代词的用法
1)作宾语。如:
Do you often see one another?你们彼此常见面吗?
New and old students learn from each other.新老同学相互学习。.
John and Tom helped each other.约翰和汤姆相互帮助。
2)作定语时须用所有格。如:
We are interested in one another's work.我们关心彼此的工作。
The students corrected each other's mistakes in their homework.学生相互改作业中的错误。
Students cut each other's hair.同学们相互理发。
3)each和other有时可分开用。如:
Each tried to persuade the other to stay at home.两个人都彼此劝说对方留在家里。
指示代词概说
表示"这个"、"那个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词叫做指示代词。
指示代词有:this这个,that那个,these这些,those那些,it那个,这个,Such如此的,如此的事物,same同样的,同样的事物。
指示代词this,these,that,those在句中的功用
指示代词this,these,that,those在句中的用法相当于名词和形容词,可用作主语、表语、宾语和定语。如:
This is a plane,这是一架飞机。(作主语)
Oh,it's not that.噢,问题不在那儿。(作表语)
How do you like these?你喜欢这些吗?(作宾语)
This book is about Chinese traditional medicine.这是一本关于中医的书。(作定语)
指示代词ins,these,that,those的其它用法
1)This (these)常用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物,that(those)则常用来指时间或空间上较远的事物。如:
This is a sickle and that is an axe.这是一把镰刀,那是一把斧子。
These days are cold.这些天很冷。
In those days the poor people had a hard time.在那些日子里,穷人生活很苦。
2)有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this和these则指下面将要讲到的事物。如:
I had a bad cold. That's why I didn't come.我伤风很厉害,所以我没有来。
Those two statements are not true.那两种说法是不真实的。
What I want to say is this:Pronunciation is very important in learning English.我所要说的是:语音在英语学习中非常重要。
chairman Mao honoured Lin Hulan with these words:"A great life A glorious death"毛主席用下面的话表彰刘胡兰:"生的伟大,死的光荣。"
3)有时为了避免重复提到过的名词,常可用that或those代替。如:
The climate of shenyang is just as good as that of Beijing. 沈阳的气候跟北京的一样好。(that代替climate)
The county's grain output of 1981 was double that of 1970.这个县1987年的粮食产量比1980年增加一倍。(that代替grain output)
Television sets made in Nanjing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.南京出产的电视机和上海的一样好。(those代替television sets)
4)This和that有时作状语用,表示"程度",意谓"这么"和"那么"。如:
The book is about this thick.那本书大约有这么厚。
I don't want that much.我不要那么多。
It指人时亦用作指示代词。指示代词it在汉语中不必译出。
如:
Who is it?――it's me.是谁?--是我。
Oh, it's you,Lao Wang.哦,是你呀,老王。
Such和same也是指示代词,其单、复数的形式相同。它们在句中可用作:
1)定语
The foreign Visitors said they had never seen such a beautiful city before.外宾说他们从来没有看过这样美丽的城市。
We are not talking about the same thing.我们谈的不是一回事。
[注] such作定语时,它所修饰的名词之前如有不定冠词,这个不定冠词应放在Such之后,如上面第一例。
2)相当于名词,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等成分。
Such were his words.这就是他讲的话。(作主语)
The same can be said of the Other article.另一篇文章也是同样情况。(作主语)
Take from the drawer such as you need.你需要什么,就从抽屉里拿吧。(作宾语)
His name and mine are the same.他和我同名。(作表语)
[注]注意在same之前一般须用定冠词the。
疑问代词概说
"疑问代词有who(谁,主格),whom(谁,宾格),whose(谁的,所有格),what(什么)和which(哪个,哪些)等。
疑问代词用于特殊疑问句中
疑问代词一般都放在句首,并在句中作为某一句子成分。如:
Who is going to speak to us tomorrow?明天谁来跟我们讲话?(who作主语)
Who told you so?是谁告诉你的?(who作主语)
Whom are you talking about ?你们在说谁?(whom作宾语,但在句首时口语常用who代替whom)
Whose umbrella is this ?这是谁的伞?(whose作定语)
What is that? 那是什么?(what作表语)
What did he say?他说什么?(what作宾语)
Which is yours,the blue pen or the redone?蓝笔和红笔哪一支是你的?(which作主语)
[注一]关于疑问代词的各种用法,可参看77.70-77.72。
[注二]疑问代词who,what,which等后面加单词ever,可强调语气,表达说话人的各种感情。如:
What ever do you want?你到底想要什么?
Who ever is she looking for ?她究竟是在找谁?
[注三]which表示在一定范围之内的选择,what则没有这种限制。如:
What do you usually have for lunch?你们午饭通常吃些什么?
Which do you like best?你最喜欢哪一个?
Which of you comrades come from the Northeast? 你们同志们中间谁是东北人?
疑问代词可以引导一个间接疑问句
间接疑问句在句中可用作主语、宾语、表语等。疑问代词本身在间接疑问句中又担任一定的句子成分。如:
Who will be in charge of the work is still not decided.谁将负责这项工作,现在还没有决定。(疑问代词who引导一个主语从句,它本身又在从句中用作主语。)
Do you know what his name is?你知道他叫什么名字吗?(疑问代词what引导一个宾语从句,而它本身又在从句中用作表语。)
[注一] what所引导的名词性从句(即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句) 有时不是间接疑问句。如:
What he says is quite true.他所讲的话很对。(what相当于that which。它引导一个主语从句,这个从句不是间接疑问句。)
Children do what the nurse tells them to do.保育员让孩子干什么他们就做什么。(what引导一个宾语从句,这个从句也不是间接疑问句。)
[注二] whatever,whoever,whichever等词可引导名词性从句。这些名词性从句也不是间接疑问句。whatever,whoever,whichever也可引导表示让步的状语从句。见15.65和15.72)如:
They eat whatever they can find.他们找到什么就吃什么。(whatever引导一个宾语从句,并在从句中作宾语。)
I've got plenty of books 1eft.Whoever wants an extra copy can get one from me.我还剩下许多书,谁还想再要一本可来拿。(whoever引导一个主语从句,并在从句中作主语。)
关系代词
两种可用来引导从句并将从句和主句连接起来的代词
这样的代词一方面在从句中用作句子成分,可作主语、宾语、定语等;另一方面又起连词的作用。这样的代词有关系代词和疑问代词两种。(关于疑问代词,见4.18)
关系代词概说
关系代词有who,whose,whom,that,which等,用来引导定语从句。它们在定语从句中可用作主语、宾语、定语或表语;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(这样的名词和代词叫做先行词)。如:
The man who is talking with Mr. Brown is an eye Specialist和布朗先生谈话的那个人是个眼科大夫。(关系代词who在从句中用作土语,它的先行词是man)
He is the comrade whom you have been looking for他就是你要找的那位同志。(关系代词whom在从句中作宾语,它的先行词是comrade,whom在口语中一般可省去)
The old man whose son is in the navy used to be carpenter.儿子在海军的那位老人过去是个木匠。
(关系代词whose在从句中用作定语,先行词为man)
The film which I saw last night is about a young teacher.我昨晚看的那部电影说的是一个年轻教师的事。(关系代词which在从句中用作宾语,先行词为film, which在口语中可省略)
This is the plane that will fly to Tokyo in the afternoon.这是下午要飞往东京的飞机。(关系代词that在从句中用作主语,先行词为plane)
不定代词概说
不是指明代替任何特定名词(或形容词)的代词叫做不定代词。不定代词有:
some 一些(可数或不可数)
somebody 某人
someone 某人
something某物,某事
any一些,任何(可数或不可数)
anybody任何人
anyone任何人
anything任何事物
no 无(可数或不可数)
nobody无人
no one无一人
nothing无物
all全体,全部
both两个
neither没有人或物(指两个当中)
none没有人或物(指两个以上)
either任何一个(指两个当中)
each每个
every每个
everybody每人,大家,人人
everyone每人
everything每一个事物,一切
other (s)另一个(些)
another另外一个,又一个
much很多(不可数)
many很多(可数)
few很少(可数)
a few一些,几个(可数)
little很少(不可数)
a little一些(不可数)
one一个(人或物)
不定代词的用法
不定代词大都可代替名词和形容词,在句中可用作主语、宾语、表语和定语。如:
1)用作主语
Both of them are waiters.他们俩人都是男侍者。
Is everybody here?人都到了吗?
2)用作宾语
I know little about the novel关于这本小说我知道的很少。
I am speaking for myself,not for others.我只代表自己,不代表别人发言。
I was interested in everything that the old man told me.我对于这位老人告诉我的一切都感兴趣。
3)用作表语
That's all for today. class is dismissed.今天就讲这一些。现在下课。
This book is too much for me.这本书对我说太难了。
4)用作定语
Study well and make progress every day.好好学习,天天向上。
He has some English books.他有一些英文书。
china will become a powerful modern country in another twenty years.再过二十年中国将成为现代化强国。
[注]有些不定代词也可用作同位语和状语。如:
Wang and Li both made good progress.王和李两人都有很大进步。(同位语)
They all went to the Zoo.他们都去动物园了。(同位语)
Are you any good at mathematics?你数学好吗?(状语)
The meeting lasted some two hours.会议进行了两个小时左右。(状语)
复合不定代词
由some,any,no,every加上-body,-one,-thing构成的不定代词,叫做复合不定代词。
1)复合不定代词有
a) somebody 某人someone某人
something某物,某事
b) anybody 任何人 anyone 任何人
anything任何事物
c) nobody 无一人no one无一人
nothing [5nQWiN]无一物
d)everybody,everyone每人,大家,人人
everything每一个事物,一切
2)复合不定代词的用法
a)复合不定代词只相当于名词,在句中用作主语、宾语和表语。如:
Everything is made of elements.任何东西都是元素构成的。(作主语)
I have got nothing to say.我没有什么话要说。(作宾语)
something和anything的区别与some和any的区别一样,前者一般用于肯定句,后者一般用于否定句、疑问句或条件状语从句中。如:
Have you anything to say about this question? -No, I haven't anything to say. (或I have nothing to say.)(或Yes, I have something to say.) 关于这个问题,你有什么话要讲吗?--我没有什么话要讲。(我有话要说。)
She told them something about her work.她跟他们谈了一些关于她的工作上的事。(作宾语)
b)复合不定代词被形容词所修饰时,形容词须放在它们的后面。如:
There is nothing wrong with the lathe.这个车床没有毛病。
is there anything important in today's newspaper?今天报纸上有什么重要消息吗?
I need somebody strong to help me.我需要一个体格强壮的人帮助我。

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